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Published on 04 Nov 2015 | Category : Emergence, Resistance before revolution

Imam Khomeini’s exile to Turkey

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Capitulation or consular judicial right is a right given to foreign citizens excluding and immunizing them from the scope of country’s laws. According to Capitulation, rooted in colonialism and imposed by colonial powers on weaker countries, the host country is unable to try foreign citizens in case of their commitment of crime. Capitulation in Iran can be traced back to Treaty of Turkmenchay and recognition of it for Russian nationals, and thereafter it was extended to other colonial powers due to incompetency of Qajar kings. Capitulation was abolished in 1927 under the pressure of public opinion and ruling atmosphere of international relations in the post-World War I era, but less than 3 decades later, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi revived it. On October 5, 1963 Assadullah Alam’s administration enacted American proposal for granting Capitulation right to its citizens, ordered by the Shah himself. Imam Khomeini was informed of this news a few days later, provoking his fury and roaring in his epochal revealing speech. In a part of his speech Imam said, “…The government flagrantly backed this disgraceful issue. They considered Iranian nation inferior to American dogs. If a person runs over an American dog, he will be tried. If Iranian Shah runs over an American dog, he will be tried. But if an American cook runs over Iranian Shah, runs over Iranian Marjas, runs over the highest ranking official of Iran, nobody can protest…”

The regime which had failed to find a solution to calm Imam Khomeini during the last two years of his movement resorted to his exile as the single remedy. On November 4, 1964 in the midnight, dozens of commandos accompanied by SAVAK officers trespassed Imam Khomeini’s domicile, comprehended and transferred him to Tehran and then sent him into exile by a military aircraft. It was the beginning of a 14-year flight that ended up in the victory of Islamic Revolution

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